By Oscar Swan
A Concise Grammar of Polish is meant to be used as a supplementary reference textual content at the starting and intermediate degrees of Polish language research. it's also appropriate to be used because the fundamental textual content in a path on Polish morphology (although workouts would have to be supplied by way of the instructor).
Phonological and morphological approaches are given specific therapy and representation all through. Sections on declension and conjugation goal at an entire description of all average and so much abnormal phenomena. Descriptions of kinds are liberally supplemented with comments bearing on derivation, utilization, and ameliorations among Polish and English.
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Nowy ‘new, masc. ’/nowszy ‘newer’ with one consonant; but also prosty ‘simple’/prostszy ‘simpler’. When consonant clusters are at the end of the adjectival stem, the usual comparative suffix is -ejsz. g. miły/milszy 'dear/more dear', drogi/droższy 'expensive/more expensive'). g. g. jasny/jaśniejszy ‘bright/brighter’, mądry/mądrzejszy ‘wise/wiser’, lekki/lżejszy 'light/lighter'. g. g. niski ‘low’ (which has the root niz-) drops the -k and mutates the -z to -ż (niższy ‘lower’). Cf. the following similar pairs: głęboki/głębszy ‘deep/deeper’, daleki/dalszy ‘far/farther’, and the unusual case of wysoki/wyższy ‘tall/taller’, in which there is an anomalous change of voiceless s to voiced ż.
And lepszy~lepsi ‘better, masc. Nsg. and vir. ’. e. palatal ń. When palatal ń is the base form, it does not have a differeent alternation value, so tani functions as both the nominative singular and virile nominative plural. g. '. Adjectival Comparison Polish has both synthetic and analytical types of adjectival comparison. The synthetic type involves the addition of a suffix to the adjective stem, with possible stem changes (comparable to the adding of -er in English), while the analytical involves the use of the separate word bardziej ‘more’, together with the regular positive degree of the adjective, similar to English comparison with more.
Lat/słów latach/słowach latom/słowom latami/słowami = Npl. Note that a morphophonemic change of final consonant occurs in the Lsg. In addition, there is a locative alternation of a~e in lato, and an alternation of o~ó in the Gpl. of słowo, conditioned by the zero ending and closed syllable. Neuter velar-stem nouns (stem-final in a velar k/g/ch). jabłko (jabł/ko) ‘apple’/echo ‘echo’ N A G L D I V Sing. -o = Nsg. -a ‘-e -u -em = Nsg. Plur. -a = Npl. -Ø -ach -om -ami = Npl. N A G L D I V Singular jabłko/echo = Nsg.
A concise grammar of Polish by Oscar Swan