By Alessandro Bettini
This moment quantity covers the mechanics of fluids, the foundations of thermodynamics and their purposes (without connection with the microscopic constitution of systems), and the microscopic interpretation of thermodynamics.
It is a part of a four-volume textbook, which covers electromagnetism, mechanics, fluids and thermodynamics, and waves and lightweight, is designed to mirror the common syllabus through the first years of a calculus-based college physics software.
Throughout all 4 volumes, specific realization is paid to in-depth explanation of conceptual points, and to this finish the historic roots of the significant techniques are traced. Emphasis can also be always put on the experimental foundation of the options, highlighting the experimental nature of physics. every time possible on the hassle-free point, innovations suitable to extra complex classes in quantum mechanics and atomic, sturdy kingdom, nuclear, and particle physics are incorporated. every one bankruptcy starts off with an creation that in brief describes the topics to be mentioned and ends with a precis of the most effects. a few “Questions” are integrated to aid readers fee their point of understanding.
The textbook deals an amazing source for physics scholars, academics and, final yet no longer least, all these looking a deeper figuring out of the experimental fundamentals of physics.
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Extra info for A Course in Classical Physics 2—Fluids and Thermodynamics
Consider, for example, two spheres of different radiuses immersed in two different fluids, say, a gas and a liquid. The question is: under which conditions do the streamlines in the two cases have the same shape? When these conditions are satisﬁed, we speak of dynamic similarity. 13 Drag at Small Reynolds Numbers 39 geometrically similar points in the two cases, the ratio of the two acting forces, the pressure drag (that is normal to the surface of the element) and the viscous drag (that is the shear stress tangent to the surface), should be the same.
Let us consider the situation in a certain instant t. In that instant, the velocity of the element in the position (x, y, z) is, say, v(x, y, z, t). The velocity is a vector function of coordinates and time. In the next immediate instant, we shall ﬁnd a different fluid element at the same point, moving, in general, at a different speed. A vector function of the coordinates and, possibly, of time is called a vector ﬁeld. If the vector is independent of time, the ﬁeld is said to be stationary. The ﬁeld we are considering is the velocity ﬁeld.
This is always the case, even for extremely small values of viscosity. This means that the fluid particles in contact with the body are at rest; the farther and farther the particles are from the body, the more their velocities increase, up to the point of equalling the velocity of the unperturbed fluid. The change takes place, for a Reynolds number above a few units, in a thin layer near to the surface, which is the boundary layer. One sees that the boundary conditions of the velocity ﬁelds are completely different for a real fluid, compared to an ideal fluid.
A Course in Classical Physics 2—Fluids and Thermodynamics by Alessandro Bettini