By J. R. Partington
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Extra resources for A History of Chemistry. 1. Theoretical Background
In a ‘mixture’ (/Ltiyju,a, migma, or /xety/xa, meigma, really what we call a ‘compound’), the individual things cannot be distinguished, but they are there and influence the whole. Aristotle* says Anaxagoras taught that ‘every particle is a m ixture (niyfjui) in the same w ay as the whole (d/xoio)? rw iravriy. Everything has in it seeds o f everything else, ‘all is in all’ , a panspermia (navanepnia), yet one material usually predominates. T h e prim ary matter is an amalgam (/uyfia, (xelyfia) o f all kinds o f seeds.
Viii, 28; A . Delatte, 212. * Deussen, (i), II, i, 63; Gilbert, 266. * Freeman, (i), 1949, 224. * Burnet, (2), 42; Ueberweg, (i), i, 71; Zeller, (i), I, i^ 555. ’ Freeman, (i), 1 9 4 9 . 2 5 3 * * Freeman, (i), 1949, 224. * Beutler, PW, xxxiv, 2362. , i, 15; (i), 30; V S, ii, 442; Freeman, (i), 1949, 241. TH E ELEA T IC SCH O O L T he E l e a t ic S 15 chool Xenophanes of Kolophon (fl. ) speaks o f geological phenomena and fossils. T h ere is no good evidence that he visited Egypt, but he travelled over Greece and went to Sicily and Syracuse.
A Pythagorean, 2 and Aristotle knew vortex motion in a plenum. Rarefaction and condensation, producing rare and dense bodies, involve motion, and hence, Melissos said, qualitative changes are impossible. ‘If things are many (as Anaxagoras said) they must be such as the One is’,®which is not (as Zeller and Burnet thought) an anticipation of the atomists, since Melissos did not accept empty space. Aristotle^ said Parmenides and Melissos were not physicists any more than Plato, but Anaxagoras, Anaximenes, and Empedokles were, but the real turning point came w ith the atomic theory of Leukippos and Demokritos (seep.
A History of Chemistry. 1. Theoretical Background by J. R. Partington