By Terje Mathiassen
A descriptive grammar of Latvian
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Extra resources for A Short Grammar of Latvian
The latter, khwien, is in corporated. Nothin g in the shape of the verbal prefix, however, in dexes the In direct Object, which appears post verbally as an in depen den t n omin al in an obliq ue shape, govern ed by the postposition -'ay 'to . ' In (7b) , on the other han d, the prefix in dexes a n omin al correspon din g to the Subject of (7a) (first person sin gular) an d a n omin al correspon din g to the In direct Object of (7a) (secon d person ) . Sin ce the prefix is from a tran sitive paradigm, in dexin g both Subject an d Object,14 it would appear that the basic In direct Object status of "you" in (7a) has been altered in (7b) .
On the other han d, an imate Subjects cann ot in corporate; thus in (6a) , compare un in corporated hliara-n 'ladies' as Subject with in corporated 'u'u 'baby/babies' as Object. ) Noun in corporation has effects on in flection al morphology; for instan ce, the an imate sin gular/plural suffixes -(i)de/-n appear on ly on un in corporated n omin als (compare 'u'u in 6a with 'u'u-n in 6b) . Southern Tiwa verbal agreemen t also calls for a brief exegesis. g. , an imate vs several classes of in an imates) of argumen ts.
Tikhwien - wia -ban 'I -' ay give past you to 1 SG:3SG an imate dog 'I gave the dog to you' b. Kakhwien - wia -ban 1 SG:2SG/3SG an imate dog give past 'I gave you the dog' wan -ban n a -' ay (S) a. Seuan -ide 0man SG an imate 3SG an imate come past I to 'The man came to me' b. In seuan - wan -ban (na) 1 SG/3SG an imate man come past (I) (gloss as in Sa) To clarify these examples, a few poin ts should be n oted concernin g Southern Tiwa morphosyn tax. In this lan guage, core n omin als are sometimes in corporated, or situated in the verbal comp lex between an in flection al prefix an d the verbal base.
A Short Grammar of Latvian by Terje Mathiassen