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By R. S. Anderson, M. Sørensen, B. B. Willetts (auth.), Prof. Ole E. Barndorff-Nielsen, Prof. Brian B. Willetts (eds.)

ISBN-10: 3211822690

ISBN-13: 9783211822692

ISBN-10: 370916706X

ISBN-13: 9783709167069

Wind erosion has this sort of pervasive impression on environmental and agricultural concerns that educational curiosity in it's been non-stop for numerous a long time. notwithstanding, there was an inclination for the ensuing guides to be scattered extensively within the clinical litera­ ture and for that reason to supply a much less coherent source than may possibly rather be was hoping for. specifically, cross-reference among the literature on barren region and coastal morphology, at the deterioration of wind affected soils, and at the technique mechanics of the grain/air­ stream approach has been disappointing. A winning workshop on "The Physics of Blown Sand", held in Aarhus in 1985, took a decisive step in amassing a study group with pursuits spanning geomorphology and grain/wind method mechanics. The identity of that group used to be strengthened through the Binghampton Symposium on Aeolian Geomorphology in 1986 and has been fruitful within the improvement of a few foreign collaborations. The pursuits of the pre­ despatched workshop, which used to be supported through a supply from the NATO medical Affairs department, have been to take inventory of the growth within the 5 years to 1990 and to increase the scope of the group to incorporate soil deterioration (and airborne dirt and dust unencumber) and people seashore tactics which hyperlink with aeolian task at the coast.

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111 ,... ,. 0 ~ h ~I 0 0 0 co ,... co 0 0) 0 0 0 ,.. II 0 ('II 0 M 0 ~ 0 111 0 0 0 co ,... co ejection angle a b Fig. 9. 23 mm grains into a bed of similar grains. Number of grains ejected in each of several ejection speed "bins", of width 15 cm/sec. , 20% of impact speed; sum over all rebound bars is ~ 1, meaning a maximum of one grain can rebound per impact event. 8 grains are ejected. b Frequency distribution of rebound and splash angles for same case as illustrated in a), with a total of 20 impacts represented.

5a, the mean number of grains ejeeted increases roughly linearly with impact speed, and compares well with data obtained from physical impact experiments with coarse sand, Fig. 5b. The mean speed of the ejected particles is considerably lower than that of the rebounding grain, and is roughly 10% of the speed of the impacting grain, for reasonable impact speeds, Fig. 6. ::'" 100 em! :: 4 2 u '":::l impact speed I 4 50 em! ::'" 2 2 1 2 6 10 14 18 22 num ber of ejecta per impact 0 2 6 1 0 1 4 I 8 2 2 26 30 number of ejecta per illl pact - 2 Fig.

32mm; 8 degrees =. : :;:. Fig. 7. Mean ejection angle tends to be oriented downwind ~ 70° from horizontal for all 5 cases, and is roughly constant across a large range of impact speeds C,I ~ ~ 30 0 200 400 600 impact speed (em/sec) 800 34 R. S. Anderson and P. K. Haff at 60-70° from the horizontal, Fig. 7. All results for impacts between 8° and 15°, which cover the range of expected impact angles in eolian saltation, display only slight dependence on the impact angle. These results are expressed in terms of the splash function (Ungar and Haff [18]), which describes the number density of grains ejected from the bed as a function of their liftoff velocity, for a given impact velocity.

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Aeolian Grain Transport 1: Mechanics by R. S. Anderson, M. Sørensen, B. B. Willetts (auth.), Prof. Ole E. Barndorff-Nielsen, Prof. Brian B. Willetts (eds.)

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