Download e-book for kindle: An Introduction to Atmospheric Thermodynamics by Anastasios Tsonis

By Anastasios Tsonis

ISBN-10: 0521696283

ISBN-13: 9780521696289

Textbook for brief undergraduate classes in atmospheric technological know-how, meteorology, physics or usual technology courses.

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Extra info for An Introduction to Atmospheric Thermodynamics

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If the parcel expands we say that the parcel performs work on the environment and if the parcel contracts we say that the environment performs work on the parcel. By definition, if the volume change is dV then the incremental work done, dW , is dW = pdV. Accordingly, when the system changes from an initial state i to a final state f the total work done, either by the system or on the system, is f W = pdV. 1) [or a (p, a) diagram, where a is the specific volume]. If dV > 0 (the system expands) it follows that W > 0 and if dV < 0 (system contracts) it follows that W < 0.

E. the system gives away heat to the environment) if η > γ and dp < 0, or η < γ and dp > 0. e. η = ∞) nR∗ dT = V dp, which owing to the ideal gas law implies dV = 0. e. e. η = 0) it dictates that dp = 0. As such a polytropic process pV η = constant reduces to an isobaric, to an isothermal, to an adiabatic, and to isochoric process for η = 0, 1, γ, and ∞, respectively. Having said this we must add that in the atmosphere over a rather wide range of motions the timescale for an air parcel (our system) needed to adjust to environmental changes of pressure, and to perform work, is short compared with the corresponding timescale of heat transfer.

Similarly H ≈ Cp T, u ≈ cV T , and h ≈ cp T . 19) which implies that cp − cV = R, cpm − cV m = R∗ . 8)) that for a monatomic gas consisting of N point-masses the total internal energy is U= 3 N kT. 2 It follows that CV = 3 3 3 3 dU = N k = mR = nM R = nR∗ , dT 2 2 2 2 36 4 THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS and cV m = 3 ∗ R , 2 cV = 3n ∗ 3 R = R. 2m 2 Similarly, Cp = dU dH 5 = + nR∗ = nR∗ , dT dT 2 and 5 ∗ 5 R , cp = R. 2 2 For a diatomic gas these values change to cpm = CV = 5 ∗ nR , 2 cV m = 5 ∗ R , 2 cV = 5 R 2 and 7 ∗ 7 7 nR , cpm = R∗ , cp = R.

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An Introduction to Atmospheric Thermodynamics by Anastasios Tsonis

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