Analysis, Fate and Removal of Pharmaceuticals in the Water - download pdf or read online

By M. Petrovic, et al.,

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Extra info for Analysis, Fate and Removal of Pharmaceuticals in the Water Cycle [Comp Anal Chem Vol 50]

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The discovery of parent drug residues in sewage would then be a likely indicator of direct disposal. Also worth noting is that the private individual is the major contributor of illicit drugs to the environment. Illicit drugs have received surprisingly little attention from environmental scientists, especially given their unknown effects on aquatic biota. To date, only two publications have focused on illicit drug residues in an environmental context [24,25], but additional investigations are underway [26].

These emissions are all subject to existing regulations [49,50]. For more information regarding manufacturing discharges, see EPA [51]. It is worth noting, however, that of the major chemical synthesis industries, the pharmaceutical industry produces the most waste (from by-products, catalysts, solvents, salts, and intermediates) per unit of actual product. The ratio of waste mass produced per unit of API produced ranges roughly from 25 to 100. 01. , the API itself) are many orders of magnitude lower in the pharmaceutical sector, somewhere between 1 and 1000 tons [52], using the E-factor approach adapted from Sheldon.

This is perhaps made clearer by distinguishing ‘‘origin’’ (as the point at which something comes into existence) from ‘‘source’’ (as the point from which something is derived or obtained). , pesticide application, groundwater recharge, sewage sludge application to land, illegal discharge and dumping), and consumer activity (which includes both the excretion and purposeful disposal of a wide range of naturally occurring and anthropogenic chemicals, PPCPs being but one expansive galaxy of such chemicals).

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Analysis, Fate and Removal of Pharmaceuticals in the Water Cycle [Comp Anal Chem Vol 50] by M. Petrovic, et al.,

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