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By Anthony F. Aveni (comp.)

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The norms of conduct attempt to guard against the problem of free riders—states that gain the benefits of, for example, a global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, without themselves suffering the cost of reducing their own emissions. Unanimity of agreement, encouraged by norms of conduct, may enhance each state’s willingness to bear some share of the costs for the benefits received. 71 The third property of multilateralism, diffuse reciprocity, is also born of the generalized principles of conduct.

If the Europeans do not accept the restrictions of a multilateral agreement in the absence of similar constraints on others, or if the Union acts together to oppose more restrictive sets of international rules, then institutionalism is not supported. S. relationship in context of four different issue areas: arms control, environment, human rights, and military cooperation. Twenty cases will be presented in all, with each one evaluated in terms of these hypotheses. One must note that the hypotheses are not exclusive: if the United States seeks to require other states to limit a certain action that the United States has already restricted itself from doing—for example, produce certain ozone-depleting chemicals—this would be evidence of both the realist and epistemic International Rel ations Approaches 33 approaches.

In itself, this would not necessarily explain the divergence with the United States. If the United States and the European Union have similar interests (goals) and similar preferences (means), then the greater weight of the EU should not matter very much. But it would be heroic to assume similar interests and preferences for any two states, let alone 16. One can show mathematically that under qualified majority voting, the Union will tend to adopt positions that favor more international regulation than the median European state would adopt on its own.

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Astronomía en la América antigua by Anthony F. Aveni (comp.)

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