By Roger Harvey, Eric Sévigny
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The pressureover the seais now low comparedwith that over the land. The pressuregradientcausesair to flow from the land to the sea;this is the land breeze(Figure 45). The land breezesetsin shortly after sunsetand continuesuntil dawn, The seabreezeis the more noticeable;it reachesforce 3-4 and gives a pleasantly cool breezeon the coast during the heat of the day. The land breezeis generally lighter than the seabreeze. Conductive cooling of air over land causes high pressure Pressure relatively low over sea Wind blows across isobars Sea temperature constant Figure 45 Land breeze ( Land cools by radiation 50 Notes on Meteorology NE monsoonof the China Seasand Indian Ocean During the northern winter the Asian continent is cooled and an intense high pressurearea forms over EasternSiberia (Figure 46).
7°F/l000 It) whereas it increases with height. The difference between weather and lee side temperatures is thus slightly over-emphasised in the above diagram. Figure 52 Fohn wind effect Fohn wind effect This is felt on the lee side of high groundand resultsin temperatureson the lee side being higher than thoseon the weatherside if the air passingover the high ground has beencooled to below its dewpoint. As it rises,the air is first cooledto its dewpointand, as precipitationoccurs,the absolutehumidity decreases.
0 0 0 , 22° Halo Brownish red ring Brownish red ring Aureole Mock Mock sun Mock sun Mock Mock Mock Mock Brownish red ring Aureole Aureole Figure 30 Corona (left) and halo (right) Mock sunor parhelionThis may form at the samealtitude as the sun,about220_360 from the real sun. When coloured,red (as with the halo) is nearestthe sun. Mock moons or paraselenaemay also occur. The formation is by refraction of light through ice crystals. Parheticcircle or mock sun ring This is anotherof the halo phenomenaand is a white circle parallel to the horizon at the samealtitude as the sun.
Caillou and the Rain by Roger Harvey, Eric Sévigny