By Felicity Meakins
Till lately, combined languages have been thought of an oddity of touch linguistics, with debates approximately whether they really existed stifling a lot descriptive paintings or dialogue in their origins. those debates have shifted from wondering their lifestyles to a spotlight on their formation, and their social and structural positive factors. This e-book goals to boost our knowing of ways combined languages evolve by way of introducing a considerable corpus from a newly-described combined language, Gurindji Kriol. Gurindji Kriol is spoken by way of the Gurindji those that stay at Kalkaringi in northern Australia and is the results of pervasive code-switching practices. even if Gurindji Kriol bears a few resemblance to either one of its resource languages, it makes use of the types from those languages to operate inside of a distinct procedure. This e-book specializes in one structural element of Gurindji Kriol, case morphology, that's from Gurindji, yet services in ways in which fluctuate from its resource.
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Additional info for Case-Marking in Contact: The development and function of case morphology in Gurindji Kriol (Creole Language Library)
No children are learning Gurindji and Lee and Dickson (2002) report that only 60 full speakers remain. Gurindji is a typical Pama-Nyungan language. It is an agglutinating language which employs only suffixes, no prefixes. 5 Pronominal clitics distinguish number (singular, dual and plural) and person (1st, 2nd 5· Note that true head-marking in the sense of Nichols (1986) should involve pronominal/ agreement marker attachment to verbs. Bound pronominal enclitics can occur with inflecting verbs in Gurindji, however generally only when the verb is in second position.
The same is true of the verbal system. In this respect, Gurindji Kriol patterns most closely with a neighbouring Australian mixed language, Light Warlpiri. This language is spoken lOOkm from Kalkaringi at Lajamanu (see map) and mixes the structures ofKrioVAboriginal English (VP) and Warlpiri (NP). Lexically nominals are also derived from both languages; however verbs are almost solely of Kriol origin (Meakins & O'Shannessy, 2005, 2010; O'Shannessy, 2005, 2008, 2009). 19 20 Case-Marking in Contact Table 1.
6% of vocabulary is derived from Kriol and 35% finds its origins in Gurindji. 4% contain synonymous forms from both languages, where the choice of word depends on a number of factors including the interlocutor. The structural and lexical sources of Gurindji Kriol are summarised in Table 1 below, and Meakins (2007) provides a more detailed sketch of the grammar and lexicon of Gurindji Kriol. Typologically Gurindji Kriol fits best into the category ofV-N mixed languages, a subclass of lexically mixed languages defined by Bakker (2003a).
Case-Marking in Contact: The development and function of case morphology in Gurindji Kriol (Creole Language Library) by Felicity Meakins