By J R Backhurst, J H Harker, J.F. Richardson, J.M. Coulson, R.P. Chhabra
Coulson and Richardson's vintage sequence offers the coed with an account of the basics of chemical engineering and constitutes the definitive paintings at the topic for lecturers and practitioners. every one publication offers transparent motives of idea and thorough insurance of useful functions, supported through a variety of labored examples and difficulties. therefore, the textual content is designed for college students in addition to being accomplished in assurance. This quantity covers the 3 major shipping technique of curiosity to chemical engineers - momentum move (fluid flow), warmth move and mass move and the relationships among them. The concluding bankruptcy covers an program the place every one of those techniques is happening concurrently - water cooling and humidification. the themes lined shape the theoretical foundation for a lot of the cloth within the later volumes of the series.
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Extra resources for Coulson & Richardson's Chemical Engineering
G. M. Burgers (1924) and M. Hansen (1928). The transition from laminar to turbulent ﬂow forms is most noticeable by a great increase in the boundary– layer thickness and in the wall shear stress. 4 shows the dimensionless combination δ99 / νx/U∞ depicted as a function of the dimensionless distance Rex = U∞ x/ν according to measurements by M. Hansen (1928). From Eq. 2), in laminar boundary layers this combination has approximately the constant value 5. For Rex = Rex crit = 3 · 105 , the measurements demonstrate 34 2.
Again the subcritical and the supercritical states can be distinguished at high Reynolds numbers. 20 shows two typical experimentally determined pressure distributions for these two states, cf. E. Achenbach (1972). At high Reynolds numbers there are deviations from the axial symmetry and unsteady processes occur, as shown by U. Dallmann et al. (1993) and B. Schulte-Werning; U. Dallmann (1991), and also E. Achenbach (1974a). The eﬀect of the Mach number on the sphere’s drag has already been shown in Fig.
As with the boundary–layer thickness, the wall shear stress τw and thus the entire friction drag of the plate can also be estimated. According to Newton’s law of friction, Eq. 6) w where the index w denotes the value at the wall. Using ∂u/∂y ∼ U∞ /δ we ﬁnd τw ∼ μU∞ /δ, and inserting the value of δ from Eq. 1), τw (x) ∼ μU∞ U∞ = μx 3 μ U∞ . 7) 3/2 Therefore the wall shear√stress is proportional to U∞ , and, particularly worth emphasising, to 1/ x. The wall shear stress of a ﬂat plate is therefore not a constant, but a function which decreases monotonically with x.
Coulson & Richardson's Chemical Engineering by J R Backhurst, J H Harker, J.F. Richardson, J.M. Coulson, R.P. Chhabra