By Jonathan C. Iliffe
New tools of buying spatial facts and the appearance of geographic info structures (GIS) for dealing with and manipulating information suggest that we now not needs to depend upon paper maps from a unmarried resource, yet can collect, mix, and customise spatial facts as wanted. to make sure caliber effects, even though, one needs to totally comprehend the various coordinate frameworks upon which the knowledge are based.
Datums and Map Projections offers transparent, available reasons of the terminology, relationships, changes, and computations taken with combining info from assorted assets. the 1st half the booklet specializes in datums, exploring diverse coordinate structures and datums, together with - and third-dimensional representations of Earth coordinates and vertical datums. After an summary of the worldwide positioning method (GPS), the writer introduces the basics of map projections and examines the different sorts. He then provides types and approaches for remodeling without delay among facts units. the ultimate bankruptcy offers case reports of tasks that illustrate the kinds of difficulties frequently encountered in practice.
Newcomers to the sphere will welcome this therapy that, rather than distinct arithmetic, makes use of lucid reasons and diverse examples to solve the complexities of the topic. For more matured readers, the booklet is a precious reference that solutions particular questions and imparts a greater realizing of transformation operations and rules.
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Extra info for Datums and Map Projections: For Remote Sensing, GIS and Surveying
This is important, as the parameters derived will be applicable only in the area of the known control points and extrapolation beyond this area is likely to cause problems. An example of an unacceptable configuration is shown in Fig. 3. 2 Including known points in a survey. Triangles indicate points known in the local system; circles are new points; the lines denote GPS vectors. 3 Poor geometry of known and unknown points.
45 cm). In addition to the ephemeris and other general infonnation about the system, two binary codes are also modulated onto the carrier waves. These can be thought of as being the equivalent of the step function shown in Fig. 2, with each change in sign being represented by a change in phase of the carrier wave. The two codes are referred to as the coarse acquisition (CIA) code and the precise (P) code, and their effective wavelengths are 300 m and 30 m respectively. Although the P code is publicly available, a further encryption (the W code) is added which makes it inaccessible to most users.
5. 7). These will be applicable only to the region for which they were derived, and will not in general be applicable to other areas. Thus, conceptually, a situation arises where the transformation parameters can be thought of as variables that change across the country. It is even possible to produce a set of maps that show, for example, how the AX parameter varies, although this is liable to lull the user into a false sense of the exactitude of such a procedure. Whichever of these methods is used to conceptualise or to solve the problem, it must be emphasised that no one set of transformation parameters on its own is likely to be sufficient except at accuracies of a few tens of metres.
Datums and Map Projections: For Remote Sensing, GIS and Surveying by Jonathan C. Iliffe