By Christopher Arup, William Van Caenegem
This state of the art examine argues that reforms to highbrow estate (IP) can be in accordance with the methods IP is interacting with new applied sciences, enterprise versions, paintings styles and social mores. It identifies rising IP reform proposals and experiments, indicating first how extra rigor and independence could be outfitted into the furnish of IP rights in order that actual recommendations are famous. the unique contributions illustrate how IP rights will be utilised, via open resource licensing platforms and personal transfers, to disseminate wisdom. It additionally recommends reforms. The dialogue takes in patents, copyright, alternate secrets and techniques and relational duties, contemplating the layout of legislative directives, default ideas, administrative practices, contractual phrases and license requisites. supplying modern empirical reviews and masking public management, collective and open techniques, and law of personal transactions, this complete publication will turn out a stimulating learn for lecturers and scholars of legislation, company and administration and improvement experiences. executive coverage makers and regulators in addition to IP managers and advocates also will locate a lot to impress suggestion.
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Extra resources for Intellectual Property Policy Reform: Fostering Innovation and Development
Cole considers Griliches’ rough guesstimate – that not more than a quarter of total productivity growth is attributable to patented inventions – to be an overestimate (Cole 2001). In addition, Griliches’ estimate (Griliches 1990, p. 1699) was in respect of all patented innovations, not induced patented innovations, which we have said are a small proportion of patented innovations (see above). Boldrin and Levine (2008) compare productivity growth in US agriculture generally and corn in particular to changes in intellectual property ‘protection’ for plants, and find no evidence of any increase in productivity following the introduction of the 1970 US Plant Variety Protection Act.
Recently patent races have expanded to become portfolio patent races (see, for example, Cohen 2005, p. Costs and benefits of patent systems 45 62). Such broader races might impose significantly different costs and benefits, including the substantial blocking of innovation by rival firms. VI. TRANSACTION/REGULATORY COSTS The most frequently mentioned costs of patent systems are the private costs of applying for, renewing and defending patents, and the private costs incurred through patent litigation.
If a technological space becomes crowded with large numbers of patents, the costs to other innovators can rise substantially. The higher the inventive step threshold, the less likely this crowding is to occur. Companies devote considerable resources to ‘inventing around’ patents. Plant suggested this was an important aspect of the maldistribution of resources caused by the patent system (Plant 1934, p. 46). In a remarkable piece of ‘spin’ (or ‘framing’ to use a more academic term), the costs of inventing around are now often claimed as a benefit of patent systems.
Intellectual Property Policy Reform: Fostering Innovation and Development by Christopher Arup, William Van Caenegem